Muslims comprise Thailand's largest religious minority and are concentrated mainly in the southern most provinces of Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, and Satun. Islam is said to have been introduced to the Malay Peninsula by Arab traders and adventures during the 13th century. Most Thai Muslims are Malay descent, reflecting the common cultural heritage Thailand's southernmost provinces share with Malaysia.

Ninety-nine percent Sunni and one percent Shi'ite Thai Muslims enjoy inspirational and financial support from His Majesty the King, who provided money for translating the Koran into Thai. Each year the King or his representative also presides during celebration commemorating the Prophet Muhammad's birthday. Moreover, His Majesty appoints a respected Muslim religious leader as Chularajamontri, or State Counselor for all Islamic affairs. The government also provides funds for building and renovating mosques.