The population of Thailand is now 61.5 million, about 10 million of whom live in the capital city of Bangkok. Thais form the majority, though the area has historically been a migratory crossroads, and thus strains of Mon, Khmer, Burmese, Lao, Malay, Indian and most strongly, Chinese stock produce a degree of ethnic diversity. Integration is such, however, that culturally and socially there is enormous unity.

The largest ethnic minority is the Chinese and other ethnic groups include Malays, Cambodians, Vietnamese, and Indians.

According to estimates of United Nations Population Information Network, the population of Thailand would be about 74 million in the year 2050.