The Southern region is hilly to mountainous, with thick virgin forests and rich deposits of minerals and ores. This region is the center for the production of rubber and the cultivation of other tropical crops.

The south, which is flanked on two sides by the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, is lined with sandy beaches and palm-fringed islands lying just offshore. Some of the finest beaches in the country are to be found in Phuket, Samui, and the islands in Phangnga Bay. Many significant ruins of historical importance have been discovered, such as the Chedi Wat Maha That in Nakorn Si Thamarat, which is more than a thousand years old.

The south is rich in culture and festivals.. Unique to the region is the sport of bull fighting. Local products of interest include ornaments made from sea shells, pearl oysters and hand-woven cloth.

The south's wealth has for centuries been based on rubber and tin industries. This is changing with the advent of tourism, it is now the fastest growing tourist region in Thailand. This is being spear headed by the island of Phuket, now an international tourist destination, with such places as Koh Samui, Krabi, Hatyai and Songkla playing supporting roles.